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A second husband loses possession of her ghost. Thus a young wife is treated economically as a commodity. Later in life she outgrows this status, partly because her sexual attractions wane, but of more importance is the fact that her children grow up and are betrothed This stabilizes her position in the community".
After a buyer has been found, the wife is always given a grace period for finding a more desirable second husband before she is required to marry the man found by her husband.
No physical coercion on the part of the husband is involved in the sale of a wife. The compulsive factor resides in the social structure, in which there is no regular position except as a wife for a young woman who was once married.
However, a Sonjo husband has a special power, sanctioned by the community, over a wife whom he wishes to sell: This system of wife purchase is quite flexible in operation and seems to allow a woman as much freedom of choice—admittedly little—as is found in most other African societies.
In at least one case an older woman ["of about forty"] was sold by her husband for a considerably reduced price.
The village council, however, levies a tax of seven goats on these transactions This fee or tax is no doubt indicative of some underlying disapproval of the selling of wives.
Most of these goats, like those collected in fines, are sacrificed When wives are exchanged rather than sold, the tax is only four goats Herskovitz, if a bride-price is given at marriage and, for a reason, returnable but "is not returned, the man may sell his wife to recover the amount he gave for her, a custom distinctly not East African".
In Bamum , a kingdom, in what is now Cameroon, in the 19th—20th centuries,  according to Aboubakar Njiasse Njoya, "in rare cases, A slave is defined by Njiasse Njoya as "a human being who has been deprived of his freedom and is totally in the possession of his master or state, who uses him at will.
In Southern Zambia ,  among the Toka,  in the early 20th century,  according to Gisela Geisler, "often women were Another man, who had sold his wife temporarily to a Lozi, demanded a court order for the return of his wife as well as outstanding payments After the court revised how it dealt with adultery, partly by forcing a divorce on the husband who was suing,  and until "the enactment of the Native Court Ordinance of ",  "husbands, who had previously tried to profit financially from in effect selling their wives to other men and then charging them for adultery compensation before the urban court, now had to fear that bringing such charges might well imply that they lost their wife, the main asset for further deals of the kind.
In South Africa , among Chinese laborers in —, according to Gary Kynoch, gambling was "prolific"  and unpaid debts often led to suicide and sales of wives and children.
In what is now western Burkina Faso , in Souroudougou,  in the s,  "household heads often resorted to selling their wives and children to passing merchants for cowries or millett, with no option for re-purchase The mother and her children would be sold as slaves.
In Eastern Ethiopia , wives were sold,  a practice apart from that of bride price in Africa. In southeast Nigeria before it was colonized , according to David Northrup, "goods brought by visiting traders proved irresistible to many.
Yet there was little that could be given in exchange for such goods: For many people slaves were the only real possibility.
The more venturesome or powerful might hope to In Colombia under Spanish colonial rule,  particularly in —,  according to David L.
Frier and Thomas A. McGinn, "it was apparently illegal for a husband to sell his wife [if in manus ], to give her in adoption, or to execute her even for serious misconduct without first consulting a consilium of relatives,"  thus possibly lawful after the consilium.
Gardner, "over a wife in free marriage Meek arguing in that the law should be "translated somewhat as follows: In Islamic sources, while the term "wife selling" referring to someone giving his wife to someone else for money does not appear, "selling" word appears in the following sources in different meanings regarding the divorce issue.
By the Hanafi school of thought, according to Laleh Bakhtiar —present , a husband may say to his wife, for example, "I sell you to yourself for so much",  and she may reply, "I purchase".
Other forms of divorce exist. No source found reports that the payment in this form of divorce must be spent for any specific post-divorce purpose, such as child support or alimony , or that it need be a property settlement beyond the terms of the agreement.
As reported by Bakhtiar, comparing 5 branches of Muslim teaching, all 5 branches agree that a wife may pay "consideration"  or, by 4 of the 5 schools, a third party may pay "ransom"  to her husband for a divorce,  the branches differing under some circumstances,  such as on validity if the wife is pregnant.
Bakhtiar says the schools of thought are followed in certain countries and regions: In the Christian Church ,  according to Frederik Pijper in , "one way [to "become a slave"] was by selling oneself because of poverty.
In this way he secured sustenance for himself, and with the purchase-money he was in a position to keep his wife from starving. In such cases the marriage was usually dissolved; to be sure the Church opposed this, but could not prevent and therefore yielded to it A synod at Paris early in the seventh century ordained that freemen who had sold To demand back a greater sum than what had been paid for them, was not allowed.
Contrasting women by rank or class and noting which wives were sold and which were not, Pijper wrote of the medieval Church, a "woman of noble rank who had deserted her husband three times was to be put under penance, and was to be prohibited from marrying again; but if she was a woman from the people she must be sold without hope of regaining her freedom".
Wife selling occurred in Europe in addition to that in Britain: In Kafiristan , which was east of Afghanistan ,  in the 19th century, a divorce was "easy"  and was done by the husband selling a wife.
In Malaya , Chinese laborers in the s—s, according to Kynoch, "were said to have been prolific gamblers In Thailand , from the midth century until , according to Darunee Tantiwiramanond and Shashi Pandey, because "traditional Thai law The logic of the law, however, did not operate in reverse and did not apply in the case of the wife because she was not a legal entity and had no identity in her own right.
In Northern Asia , according to an report by Arthur Montefiore, among Samoyads or Samoyedi who are part of the Ural-Altaic Mongoloids , "[the husband] may commerce with his wife, for marriage is not considered a binding tie.
It is not uncommon for a Samoyad to sell his wife to another for the consideration of a few teams of deer, and he sometimes barters her for a lady whose husband may be willing to accept the view that exchange is no robbery.
In Indonesia ,  among the Nias, according to E. Neumann from , a husband was allowed to "pawn In ancient Emar , Syria, in the late 14th- to early 12th-centuries B.
A Christian Biblical Old Testament passage describes an event in Egypt as an instance of wife selling. Blumoff, Genesis describes "some pretty deplorable characters who do dreadful things to each other In ancient Rome, in two situations, a "fictitious" sale was an actual procedure.
One of three forms of manus marriage was coemptio , which, according to Gary Forsythe, seems to have existed in the mid-5th century BC  and into the CE 2nd century.
Colish, coemptio was in essence a fictitious notional sale of the woman to the husband   that could occur at any time during their marriage,  thus, if after marriage, a fictitious notional sale of the wife to her own husband.
According to du Plessis, "a ceremonial resale of the wife terminated marriage by coemptio and probably by usus , too ",  [ab] as a reversal of the marriage procedure.
Theophanes claimed that in the 5th century Theodosius II , emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire , may have been managed or tricked into signing unread a contract "selling" his wife Aelia Eudocia into slavery or giving her to Pulcheria so Pulcheria could sell his wife; after the signing, Pulcheria "gave In ancient Rome, according to Gail Hamilton ,  Cato gave his wife to Hortensius , who married her, after which, when Hortensius was dying, he left all his property to her and, when she was widowed, Cato remarried her;  and Caesar "["taunt[ed]"] Cato Bishops were instructed to secure such women and sell them.
This hard law was promulgated in Spain, at the beginning of the seventh century. If, however, after being warned by his bishop, he still failed to yield, his wife was to be made a slave by the prince.
In Asia Minor, administered by Turks , among the Yourouks , as reported in by Theodore Bent , "on marriage the husband generally pays something to the father, and this has given rise to the idea that the nomads ["Yourouks"] are in the habit of selling their wives for the harems of Constantinople, whereas they are only carrying out their legitimate idea of the marriage contract.
In Palestine of the 1st century , according to Graeber, it was not "normal" "for a man On an Abyssinian couple met  in northeast Africa , in —,  according to James J.
Harrison, "we [the first white men ever seen in the country] After repeated attempts, he and the good lady, looking crestfallen at not even raising a bid, proceeded on their journey.
In Australia , in —, among aborigines in Queensland , according to Carl Lumholtz ,  "at Herbert River the blacks did not know, before the arrival of the whites, of any stimulants at all.
The tobacco served me instead of money, and for it they would do anything, even to selling their wives.
In Szabolcs , in the 11th century, a substitute for a wife could be sold, with the gain going to religious leadership.
According to Pijper in , writing of the Christian Church,  "according to the synod of Szabolcs , if a priest instead of taking a wife had chosen a servant or a slave as a companion, she was to be sold and the proceeds were to be given to the bishop.
These are claims by enemies in war including civil war and which may not have been true even to a small degree, but which were widely made.
In Rwanda ,  up to ,  according to Erin K Baines, Hutus accused Tutsis , identified as enemies,  by saying, "Tutsi sold their wives Tutsis tried to marry their wives to Hutu elite in order to have spies in the inner circle.
Most bans are implied in bans against sales of human beings that by definition include sales of wives, and such more general bans are too numerous to list here.
Some bans, however, are explicitly against wife sale. In Thailand, "only in , under pressure from the West, were In Indonesia,  among the Nias, according to Loeb citing Neumann from , "the only restriction which the husband had to observe is that he was not allowed to sell his wife outright",  but was allowed to "pawn her as a pledge for his debts".
Among the Kaffirs , as studied in the Cape Colony by the South African government in ,  "the husband cannot sell his wife nor ill-treat her";  divorce exists but is rare.
Thus, fas early lost the force of law. In ancient Israel , according to Levine, a man "could never sell a wife, even if she had originally been a war captive";  at least he could not sell her to an "outsider",  although redemption was possible.
Bans, whether against wife sales specifically or against all sales of human beings, that were only in effect part of the time or that were substantially violated and unenforced are too numerous to list.
Examples include bans in England, often violated and generally unenforced for a time,  and Japan, by law having no ban for a time.
An undated  doggerel  from Western Pennsylvania  was reported by H. Mary Richardson,   living in Calvin Township , southwestern Michigan, which town was a destination for slaves travelling through the Underground Railroad  and in which town most residents and local government officials were Black.
Dorson , in Clarksdale , [ai] Cohoma [ sic ] County, [aj] northern  Mississippi,  [ak] c. The plot of the western-musical film " Paint Your Wagon " treats the subject satirically.
This was recently removed. In , Sane Guruji  born as Pandurang Sadashiv Sane ,  of Maharashtra , India, authored Shyamchi Ai ,  a collection of "stories",  which, according to Guruji, were "true Have you no control over your tongue?
In Indian literature, Mahabharata , a story of Gandhari, according to Jayanti Alam, includes the "censor[ing] [ sic ]"  or censuring of "Yudhishtira According to Jonathan Parry in , "in the famous legend of Raja Harish Chandra, it was in order to provide a dakshina that, having been tricked into giving away all his material possessions in a dream, the righteous king was forced to sell his wife and son into slavery and himself become the servant of the cremation ghat Dom in Benares.
In China, according to Smith, a "possibly well-known tale"  about the Song dynastic era  A. Go sell the buffalo and pigs.
In Guatemala , according to Robert G. In the Dutch Indies ,  fiction by Tirto Adhi Soerjo , who was Javanese and writing in a language that "was a form of resistance to Dutch",  according to Laurie J.
Sears, included in Membeli Bini Orang: In Scandinavia ,  in c. Wife selling was criticized by the Roman Catholic Pope Gregory VII in the 11th century,   and the Catholic church over time objected to it, apparently because it objected to divorce,  while the non-Catholic Christian church sometimes did not oppose it.
According to Robert G. Ingersoll , writing in , "to sell wives Karl Marx  argued that machinery adds so many women and children to the workforce that men are displaced and thus, according to Michael Burawoy , "all that the father can do is sell his wife and children.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about sales of wives regardless of whether marriage or sale was lawful or by whom sold, or for what purpose.
For the selling of unmarried females to become wives, see bride-buying. For transfers of property into or as part of marriage, see dowry and bride price.
Marriage and other equivalent or similar unions and status. Void and Voidable marriages Annulment Marriage fraud. Family and criminal code or criminal law.
Child abuse Domestic violence Incest Child-selling. By country or region. Wife selling English custom. For divorce-based instances from the colonies before they became the U.
For an overview of divorce in Islam, including without payment, see Divorce in Islam. Sociology portal Anthropology portal Feminism portal Discrimination portal.
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